Isnin, 29 Disember 2008
Sabtu, 27 Disember 2008
The majority of the Malays support UMNO; and UMNO has plundered and mis-managed the wealth of this country with impunity. Therefore, to change the fate of our nation is to change the mentality of the Malays. This is the ONLY solution!
Without doubt, DAP has struggled and fought fearlessly and tirelessly over the past 4 decades aspiring to build a democratic and progressive Malaysia regardless of race and religion. However, I can only conclude that over the past 4 decades, DAP has completely failed to fight against the UMNO hegemony in the country.
DAP had never prepared itself to be the alternative of BN until 08 March 2008. And we have to acknowledge that DAP had been dragged and manipulated by UMNO to become or at least seen to become a Chinese-Chauvinist political party. The fact is that without PAS or Anwar Ibrahim, DAP will NEVER be able to engage the Malay electorate. The leadership of DAP has long been luxuriating in being recognized as the ‘Chinese Hero’ or ‘Non-Muslims’Rights Defender’.
Since DAP’s inception in 1966, the Party has failed to recognize the basic and simple fact that it is the Malays who decide the sort of leaders they want and they have voted UMNO in for 12 consecutive General Elections.
UMNO had always been perceived as the sole defender of Malay supremacy with their special rights and privileges, even if it is at the expense of other ethnic groups. It doesn’t require complex political analysis to understand that the MAJORITY of Malays had always been staunch supporters of UMNO.
If they refuse to change their voting preference, the status quo is going to remain. The more we challenge it, the stronger UMNO will be. Thus, for DAP to directly clash with UMNO will further enhance its image as a Chinese-based party and provide UMNO with an opportunity to have more Malay sympathizers.
An example is, if they increase the number of scholarships for non-bumis, UMNO can easily tell the Kampong Malays that they have succumbed to the pressure of MCA, Gerakan and MIC. The Malays will immediately give their strong endorsement to UMNO to defend their rights. DAP, as one of the strongest opposition parties in Malaysia, is still failing to comprehend the racial game played by UMNO.
Instead of directly engaging the Malay electorate, DAP chooses to play the ZERO SUM GAME with MCA and Gerakan. These 3 Chinese-based political parties lack the basic political wisdom to survive independently in our multi-racial country where Malays/Muslims are the majority. At least we know UMNO can easily survive by means of communalism and form the government with smaller political parties.
No matter how hard DAP argues or debates with MCA or Gerakan, it won’t change the fixed mindset or mentality of the Malay electorate. Neither will MCA or Gerakan be forced to change the mindset of the Malays by DAP!
Remember the iron fact that the majority of the Malays support UMNO; and UMNO has plundered and mismanaged the wealth of this country with impunity. Therefore, to change the fate of our nation is to change the mentality of the Malays. This is the ONLY solution!
As our most respected Regent of Perak, Dr. Nazrin Shah put it, ‘The Malay mindset is a crucial factor in our nation’s stability’. Dr. Nazrin further elaborated that, ‘racial prejudice can be erased if the Malay mindset is stable and comfortable towards forging harmony. It is a pre-condition to our nation’s stability’.
May I ask Lim Kit Siang, Lim Guan Eng, Karpal Singh, or even the writer Liew Chin Tong, how much has DAP done over the past 40 years to change the mindset of the Malays? How much has DAP done to win the trust of the Malays? How many times has DAP challenged UMNO in open debate on the academic performance of Malay students?
Instead of getting closer and winning the hearts and trust of the Malay electorate, DAP has chosen to fight with MCA and Gerakan to play the role of Chinese Hero.
Worse still, after struggling for more than 40 years in Malaysia’s political history, DAP still doesn’t have the slightest inkling of what ‘political courtship’ is all about. Even the MOST STUPID salesman knows how to be courteous to customers and win their trust.
DAP chooses to shun Malay electorate and frighten them by:
a) Refusing to wear songkok,
b) Raising the issue of Social Contract,
c) Immediate abolition of positive discrimination policies
It’s made me wonder whether DAP is paid by UMNO to strengthen their grass root supporters! If I were a DAP leader, I would ostentatiously wear the Songkok to pro-actively court and seek Malay support for DAP. I would put aside the issue of the Social Contract and would clearly and carefully pinpoint the weaknesses of the NEP to the Malay masses before revising it.
If the Umnoputras liken the fate of the Malays in Penang to the Malays in Singapore, how is YAB Mr. Lim Guan Eng going to answer this question or ‘accusation’? What YAB Mr. Lim Guan Eng will do is to imitate his predecessor Dr. Koh by keeping his mouth shut and be speechless. Silence means consent!
DAP should pro-actively and sincerely urge the Malay masses to look beyond the tiny island of Singapore and focus on the plight of Malays in Batam, Bintang, Karimun and even the slum areas in Jakarta. Ask them to compare whether Singapore Malays are better off or Batam Malays are better off.
I can help organize special tours for all the Malays/bumiputras in Malaysia to visit all the Indonesian islands surrounding Singapore to see for themselves how the Malays there are living in abject poverty and sordid conditions. Many young girls in Batam, Bintang and Karimun have to prostitute themselves to feed their family. They are also deprived of the opportunity to receive basic education and training. And we know many of them have to leave their families to become maids in Singapore and Malaysia..
We should challenge UMNO - NOT to protect the Malays in Singapore, but the Malays in Batam, Bintang and Karimun! We are not defending Singapore, but we have to speak the truth to the Malay masses. Enlighten them and so they won’t be blinded and misguided by UMNO. Shame on our Education Minister who expressed the need to travel to the UK to save ‘our’ so-called prodigy Sufiah. He should go to Batam Island to join the UN’s efforts to curb child prostitution!
For DAP’s information, Singapore Malays have progressed very well. Over the last 15 years, they have improved significantly in their academic performance. Singapore Malays have the highest percentage of home ownership as compared to the Malays in Malaysia and Indonesia! DAP does not have to defend PAP, but I would encourage YAB Mr. Lim to invite Dr. Mahathir for a telecast debate on the plight of Malays in Singapore.
Dr. Mahathir always reminds the Malays in our country to look at the Malays in Singapore, how ‘miserable’ they are without firm control in politics. For Mahathir’s information, the Singapore Parliament Speaker is a Malay and the Finance Minister an Indian Muslim like Mahathir. And so far, I have not heard of Singapore Malays being maids in Malaysia or Indonesia, and neither have I heard of a large number of young Malay girls in Singapore prostituting themselves to feed their family.
As Islam is the official religion of Malaysia, DAP leaders should openly and publicly support the teachings of the Quran in our country. I voted for PAS on 8th March to close down casinos, horse-racing, 4D and TOTO. Non-Muslims have long been paying a second tax to the UMNO government by ‘gambling-off’ their whole family savings and children’s education to win the trust and respect of Malays and Muslims.
DAP should advocate the closure of casinos, 4D, TOTO, and horse-racing as all these vice activities operators are UMNO agents. They take gambling money from non-Muslims and pay it to their UMNO Master. To cut off this source of revenue for UMNO, DAP should explain to the non-Muslim community how this gambling system works in Malaysia - and teach UMNO a lesson as we must expose UMNO’s hypocrisy!
Unfortunately, DAP leaders don’t appear to have the intelligence, wit, courage and political will to have the paradigm shift and think out of the box politically. As mentioned earlier, DAP is just a political party helplessly manipulated by UMNO. By just simply advocating the banning of gambling, DAP could win the respect and trust of Malays and Muslims plus save many non-Muslims from bankruptcy and family problems. But most importantly, it cuts off a large chunk of revenue from UMNO. ONE stone killing 3 birds.
Instead of shouting and arguing with ridiculous Umnoputras in Parliament, I urge DAP to instruct each of their members to befriend at least 10 Malays to explain to them the challenge of this ever-changing globalized economy and how we have to work together regardless of race and religion for a better Malaysia. When the Malay mindsets change, Malaysia will change; and vice-versa.
DAP, hear me and hear me well. You may be sincere, but you are sincerely wrong in Malaysian politics. Go and study what made UMNO strong. Do your political analysis. Also, DAP, you must remember that PAS is your true friend, even though they talked with UMNO. They are righteous and godly people that won’t succumb to the temptation of money. That is not the case with Keadilan. Except Anwar and a few top leaders, many Keadilan people are still carrying the UMNO-DNA, as we have witnessed with the running dog Ezam and Nalla betraying the party.
DAP, you should acknowledge the fact that the special rights and position of Malays/bumiputras are enshrined in our constitution.. You have to respect it. You must have a complete and comprehensive Malay agenda to compete with UMNO. For example, the Penang state government can provide free but compulsory tuition for Penang Malay students at schools. DAP must cultivate and nurture the Malays in Penang to excel in academics and be able to compete on equal footing with others. Penang Malays must be the locomotive change of mindset to the rest of the Malays in our country. If DAP fails to change the Malay mindset in Penang, DAP will never be qualified to be addressed as a ‘National’ party.
Lastly, DAP, you still have a long way to go and you really have to learn again who’s given UMNO power. Go to their power base, seize their power and cut off their power supply! For a progressive and better Malaysia, wearing the songkok is a trivial matter.
If necessary, let Anwar’s new cabinet be full of capable Malays like Dr. Syed Husin Ali, Dr. Azly Rahman, Dr. Bakri Musa, Tuanku Abdul Aziz, etc. to prove to the Malay masses that we, Chinese, are not power hungry; we don’t choose to ‘pegang’ so as to destroy their livelihood as UMNO has claimed. We can prove to them that even though there is only 1 Chinese Minister in the Cabinet, it is still okay to us if the highly capable and honest Malay leaders can lead our country to greater heights and serve the rakyat wholeheartedly regardless of race, language and religion!
Please learn, understand and even master the UMNO’s Art of War in Politics.
‘Know your enemies and know yourself, hundred battles hundred victories’ - ‘Sun Tzu’s Art of War’.
FOR A BETTER MALAYSIA
Khamis, 25 Disember 2008
Selasa, 23 Disember 2008
Sabtu, 20 Disember 2008
Khamis, 18 Disember 2008
Selasa, 16 Disember 2008
Allahyarham Tun Abdul Razak dalam ucapannya pada 17hb Februari 1971 : Seminar Perikatan yang pertama mengatakan " Saya ingin berterus - terang di sini, bahawa perpaduan negara TIDAK AKAN WUJUD sekiranya kedudukan ekonomi yang tidak seimbang dikalangan rakyat berbagai kaum tidak diatasi dan kemajuan serta kemakmuran negara tidak dinikmati dengan adil dan saksama"
Dua faktor penting yang ditekankan oleh Tun Razak adalah :
- Ketidakseimbangan ekonomi antara kaum
- Kemakmuran negara tidak dinikmati dengan adil
Ahad, 14 Disember 2008
Dato Onn Jaafar CO 537/4785, Memorandum National Services for Malays (Muka 220 Dato Onn Pengasas Kemerdekaan - Prof Ramlah Adam
Jumaat, 12 Disember 2008
Rabu, 10 Disember 2008
Isnin, 8 Disember 2008
"Saya mulakan dengan kupasan akan peri pentingnya pemerkasaan rakyat melalui wacana terbuka yang berteraskan kekuatan dan kelazatan ilmu."
Tak tau lak den ilmu tu lazat. Camno agak eh raso. Apo maksud pemerkasaan rakyat melalui wacana terbuka? Yolah den tak skolah tinggi, tak paham bonar doh. Lagi satu contoh ayat..
"Perubahan memerlukan komitmen yang tuntas dan berlandaskan kesedaran murni bagi membebaskan negara dari kebobrokan yang sudah lama mengakar. Keboborokan yang mereput ini serta kesediaan beliau untuk melintas sempadan kepartian demi menyokong usaha.."
Ayat gilo bobrok reput. Cam yo yo all je. Cakap Nuar berkenaan ekonomi pulak...
"Apa yang pasti, kalangan muda perlu memiliki keinsafan dan mengakui bahawa krisis ekonomi global tidak mampu dibendung tanpa tindakan internal yg mantap. Saranan saya, kita harus mulai memikirkan kemungkinan untuk mengasaskan satu sistem kewangan yang lebih kuat dan kukuh."
Setakat cakap camtu sumo orang buleh. Tapi macamano nak asaskan sistem kewangan kukuh dengan internal yang mantap tu? Habaq mai skit.
Kesimpulan eh..sojak den tau sapo Nuar sampai la ni..ayat dio tak habih2 bombastik yor lobih tanpo sebarang isi. Maklumlah budak Pengajian Melayu. Propa je pandey...
Sabtu, 6 Disember 2008
Saya terkejut dengan khabar berita tanah runtuh di kawasan Bukit Antarabangsa awal pagi tadi. Sepanjang ingatan saya, ini tragedi kali ketiga selepas rebahnya Highland Towers pada Disember 1993 dan juga di Ukay Views beberapa tahun yang lalu.
Hal yg diprihatinkan ialah samada kecuaian yang dikenalpasti dalam bencana Highland Towers berulang. Arahan baru agar dihentikan semua projek pembangunan dilereng bukit bukan perkara baru. Kekhuatiran kita ialah seandainya ketamakan mengatasi kewarasan, nyawa dan harta menjadi kurban.
Isunya bukan sekadar pembangunan dilereng bukit, tetapi kelulusan yang mengenepikan pertimbangan keselamatan dan persekitaran.
Ucapan takziah saya rakamkan atas pemergian 10 orang mangsa yang terkorban dalam bencana tersebut. Sama-samalah kita berdoa agar Allah s.w.t. mencucurkan rahmat ke atas roh mereka dan mempermudahkan urusan pasukan keselamatan dalam menjalankan usaha mencari dan menyelamat.
Selasa, 2 Disember 2008
Isnin, 1 Disember 2008
Sabtu, 29 November 2008
Khamis, 27 November 2008
Selasa, 25 November 2008
Ahad, 23 November 2008
Rabu, 19 November 2008
Promises were made; time and again, that Maika shareholders will get their hard earned money back. But not a penny was paid. At each Maika's annual general meeting, the shareholders continue to press for answers. Often the meeting degenerates into violence as 'thugs' linked to MIC president, rough up those who dare ask questions.
Not content with siphoning off the shares, Samy Vellu appointed his son, Vell Paari as CEO of Maika Holdings in 1999, and remains so to date. He is now in the process of selling off the few remaining assets of Maika Holdings.
p/s: The article about Maika Holdings is from email@example.com. The author give the permission to distribute this material in either electronic or printed form to as many people as possible.
1. Aliran Magazine (Extensively used for Maika Telekom Share Scandal)
2. Indian Communities in south East Asia – A. Mani & Kernail Singh Sandhu
3. The End of Empire and the Making of Malaya – Timothy Norman Harper
4. South East Asia Over Three Generations: Essays Presented to Benedict R.
5. The Indian Minority and Political Change in Malaya 1954-1957 – Rajeswary Ampalavanar
Isnin, 17 November 2008
Let’s for a moment try to be logical; how did these companies come to possess this amount of money before it was handed over to MIED? They must have been paid in cheques when they sold the Telekom shares. Does it mean that they went to the bank, cashed the cheques and carried the millions of ringgit, presumably in a bag, as one crazy Malaysian guy did in Australia? This seems far fetched!
What is puzzling is the fact that in spite of so much overwhelming evidence, the Anti Corruption Agency (ACA) after 17 months of investigation cleared Samy Vellu of any wrong-doing but unfortunately without clearing the doubts in the minds of the Malaysians, as was observed by Aliran Monthly.
Who Benefited From Share Allocation?
The larger questions as to how and why political parties are allocated shares that are monopolized by the connected few have not been addressed. These allocations are never revealed and it is not possible to know which crony benefits and by how much. This system has led to abuses and effectively blocks the wealth from reaching a wider circle of deserving citizens.
In 1994, the then Chairman of MIC Public Claims Committee, V Subramaniam – also known as “Barat” Maniam – made a startling accusation publicly. He charged that the accounts were fabricated to make it appear as if all the profits from the sale of the Telekom shares were channelled to MIED. In challenging Samy to take him to court, he declared, “I have come out with this statement to prove that Samy Vellu is a thief. He has stolen (Telekom) shares from the Indian community.”
Sabtu, 15 November 2008
Two of the three companies -Advance Personal Computers Sdn. Bhd. and S.B. Management Services Sdn. Bhd. -shared the same business address: Level 2, Block F-North, Damansara Town Centre, Damansara Heights, Kuala Lumpur.
These two companies had the same Company Secretary: S. Balasubramaniam s/o M. S. Servai. Significantly, S. Balasubramaniam s/o M. S. Servai and Sothinathan s/o Sinna Gounder were both directors and shareholders of these two companies.
Note: Sothinathan Sinna Gounder is none other than S. Sothinathan, the present MIC Member of Parliament for Teluk Kemang, Negeri Sembilan. In addition to this, he is also the Deputy Minister of Natural Resources and Environment.
Samy Vellu rewarded a person who helped him hijack the Telekom shares by making him a Deputy Minister and could also probably groom him for future leadership of MIC.
Do we seriously need leaders like this????
If the 10 million STMB shares were allocated for the MIC, who would be the natural inheritors of these shares on behalf of the Indian community -Maika with its 66,400 shareholders or three insignificant private companies with six shareholders? Does this information in any way suggest that these three companies represented the interests of the Indian community?
Who lied to the Finance Ministry that these “three companies represented the interests of the Indian community”?
What was the motive for diverting nine million shares to three private companies?
Those who sought to find the answers were threatened or beaten up. One brave soul who went on a crusade to expose this scandal was stabbed in Penang. Whenever questions regarding Maika were raised at MIC meetings presided by Samy Vellu, it was alleged that thugs would suddenly appear beside the person asking the question and that would be the end of the affair to seek answers.
On May 13th 1992, the then Selangor Assemblyman for Seri Cahaya, Datuk S. Sivalingam (now deceased), had also acted as a thug when he led an assault of Maika shareholders who were peacefully picketing against the Maika Telekom shares hijacking scandal outside Maika headquarters.
In October 2006, the MIC Johor Assemblyman for Tenggaroh, Datuk S. Krishnasamy assaulted M. Kulasegaran, the DAP MP for Ipoh Barat at the Maika Annual General Meeting (AGM) at Legend Hotel. Even though Kulasegaran lodged a police report, no action was taken against S. Krishnasamy.
Some years ago, it was claimed that at one particular MIC meeting at the Dewan Sri Pinang in Penang, chaired by Samy Vellu, a Maika shareholder wanted to know the position of Maika. It was alleged that Samy Vellu told this shareholder that he would provide the answer after the adjournment for refreshment. In the meantime two thugs confronted this shareholder and told him that if he wanted to return home in one piece it was the right time to go home. When the meeting resumed, Samy Vellu reportedly called for the shareholder to repeat his query. But since he wasn’t there, Samy Vellu continued with his meeting without touching on the subject of Maika.
Khamis, 13 November 2008
According to Dato Seri Samy Vellu, the remaining 9 million shares were for allocation to “other MIC bodies”.
“Further, Dato Seri Samy Vellu stated that he would contact the Ministry to clarify the position.”
It was then, after Samy Vellu had contacted the Finance Ministry; that the letter of offer was retracted and Maika’s allocation reduced to only 1 million shares.
Why did Samy Vellu prevent Maika from acquiring the 10 million shares?
Wasn’t Maika his brain-child to raise the corporate wealth of the Indian community so that their economic welfare would be secured?
Wasn’t he the leader of MIC which launched Maika as a business venture to enrich the community which had long been associated with deprivation and poverty?
This was God-sent wealth. Why did he prevent this wealth from reaching Maika?
Imagine how much Maika would have made from these shares for which it only paid RM5 per share.
When Telekom shares were first traded, it fetched a price of RM6.15 per share and that too during a bearish market. By mid-1992 the Telecoms share price was hovering around RM11-RM13.
According to Ram, in an article in the Aliran Monthly -1993:13(10):
Samy Vellu had taken away from Maika RM120 million in profits (which it would have attained had it just held on to the 10 million shares until 1993).
They Don’t Deserve 10 Million Shares
Samy Vellu made it extremely clear that he personally decided to allocate only one million shares to Maika. According to Samy Vellu, “I could have given all the shares to Maika Holdings if not for their past business record. They don’t deserve 10 million shares because of the dismal performance of the Maika management. They have to learn to do business on their own and not depend on shares and make money out of it”. (New Straits Times 16th May 1992)
His autocratic style and arrogance comes through so forcefully: “I could have given all the shares to Maika Holdings…,” he boasts. “They don’t deserve 10 million shares…,” he berates.
It is very apparent that he keeps a very tight hold on Maika. That being the case, how could Maika undertake any business venture without his knowledge and blessing? Shouldn’t he be part of the debacle that is haunting Maika today? Shouldn’t he also shoulder the blame for “the dismal performance of the Maika management”?
And why should he give nine million shares to three obscure companies?
Management Services Sdn. Bhd. and Advanced Personal Computers were in fact shell companies with paid-up capital of RM2 each. The third company is Clearway Sdn. Bhd.
Samy Vellu decided on the shares allocation -not the Ministry of Finance!
On what criteria did Samy Vellu decide that the three companies deserve to get the Telekom shares instead of Maika?
What business experience and success could these companies boast about to warrant their being chosen from among all the other Indian businesses in the country?
Selasa, 11 November 2008
1) Why did the Finance Ministry cancel the initial offer of the 10 million shares and subsequently allot only one million shares to Maika?
2) Who was responsible for the retraction of the original offer?
3) Who lied to the Finance Ministry?
4) Who informed them that Maika had recommended that the nine million shares be given to three companies?
5) Who supplied the names of these three companies?
6) Who coerced the Finance Ministry to change their mind?
7) Who aborted this offer? (There was no earthly reason for the Finance Ministry to change its mind on its own after having allocated 10 million shares).
According to Tan Sri G. K. Rama Iyer, the Managing Director of Maika Holdings Bhd -as revealed in his press release dated May 16th 1992:
Samy Vellu was informed at 6.10 am on October 5th 1990, that Maika had been offered 10 million STMB shares and of the probability of obtaining full loan financing and that Maika intended to take up the entire allocation of 10 million shares. Indeed, a letter dated October 5th 1990, from Arab-Malaysian Merchant Bankers Bhd. (AMMBB) - offering RM50 million to finance the purchase of the 10 million shares was received on October 6th 1990.
Ahad, 9 November 2008
Sometime in the middle of February 1992, the shroud of secrecy surrounding the Telekom shares allocation was ripped apart. Then, all hell broke loose.
A journalist from “Watan” disclosed that “there could have been some hanky-panky in the allocation of Telekom’s shares to Maika Holdings.
This was then followed by another report in a Tamil magazine, “Thoothan”, on 1st April 1992, which disclosed that there could have been some discrepancy in the distribution of the 10 million Telekom shares allocated to Maika by the Finance Ministry. Malaysians learned for the first time (two years after the share issuance), that Maika acquired only one million and not the entire 10 million shares that were allotted to Maika Holdings.
Samy Vellu, through the Tamil Nesan and at MIC meetings, tried to explain by insisting that the cash flow problem faced by Maika did not allow Maika to take up all 10 million shares. But, one of the directors, a one-time ally of Samy Vellu, Vijendran, issued a statement insinuating that the truth may not have been told.
When this matter was raised in parliament, Finance Minister Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim disclosed that since Maika had stated that it could take up only one million shares, the remaining nine million shares were allocated to three companies proposed by Maika because to his “ministry's knowledge, the three companies represented the interests of the Indian community” (The Star, April 30, 1992).
Note: At the time of share allocation in 1990, Tun Daim Zainuddin was the Finance Minister.
Jumaat, 7 November 2008
Touted as an economic vehicle and a miracle to lift the Indian poor from the shackles of poverty, Maika was launched with much hype and hope. The poor Indians -traditional MIC supporters, the lower middle-class and the working class Indians as well as a vast majority of plantation workers -were mesmerized into responding enthusiastically. The poor plantation workers put their life savings into the venture, some scraping the barrel, others mortgaging their property and pawning the last of their jewellery. A vast majority also took loans at exorbitant rates to invest in a venture that promised dreams of hopes and tantalizing prospects.
It’s not only the poor Indians who responded to this call to rally behind the MIC's efforts to secure seven per cent of corporate ownership for the Indian community -which at that time had been stagnating at under one per cent since 1960. Even the middle-class Indians who were wary of the caste and communal politics of MIC came forward to participate.
Although the original plan by the MIC was to ensure that at least RM30 million worth of Maika shares were subscribed, so successful was the promotion campaign that by 1984, a phenomenal RM106 million was raised from almost 66,400 shareholders. A large majority of the shareholders are poor plantation workers. The largest individual shareholder with almost 2.8 million shares was MIC president Datuk Seri Samy Vellu. The amount invested in Maika was even larger than that obtained by the MCA’s Multi-Purpose Holdings when the company commenced business.
When it started operations, Maika had one of the biggest cash reserves among Malaysian companies. At a time when business conglomerates like YTL, Berjaya, Malaysian Mining Corps, etc were practically unknown entities, Maika was already well known and if properly managed, would have been a billion dollar company now.
However, in its twenty-five years of tortured history, Maika investors have known nothing but pain and sorrow. The new dawn of a golden opportunity that was promised to the Indian poor never arrived. Instead, each passing year only witnessed dashed hopes and broken promises that littered the chequered history of Maika. Many of the investors had since passed away, their spirits broken by the betrayal of the leader they trusted.
What went wrong for a venture that took off in such a blaze of glory? Why is it in shambles today?
It is a case of a noble intention that has gone awry through bad management, poor investment, sheer arrogance and pure greed; which brooked no question and refused to be accountable to the shareholders. If proper business ethics had been observed, if honest criticism had been tolerated and accommodated, if from the beginning Maika was run by professionals rather than politicians, Maika perhaps may not have nose-dived into the hopeless situation that it is in today.
In spite of a number of major acquisitions made into some important companies -like the United Asian Bank (UAB), United Oriental Assurance (UOA), Malaysian Airlines System (MAS), Malaysian International Shipping Corporation (MISC), TV3 and Edaran Otomobil Malaysia Bhd (EON) -Maika’s performance has been mediocre.
It registered a tiny profit from 1984 to 1986 -the total amount was nothing to shout about and amounted to RM16.5 million only -which enabled Maika to declare three dividends which totaled 11 sen per share.
Rabu, 5 November 2008
2. Hakikatnya sebelum itu Roger Mitton tidak pernah menulis sebarang kebaikan tetapi lebih banyak kutukan mengenai Malaysia.
3. Namun Anwar telah memberi ruang kepada Roger Mitton membuat liputan mengenai tugasnya sepanjang hari bermula seawal 7.00 am hingga jam 11.00 pm dan perkara ini pernah membuatkan wartawan tempatan berkecil hati kerana ruang yang terlalu luas diberikan oleh seorang pemimpin negara kepada wartawan asing.
4. Laporan berkenaan Anwar telah diterbitkan selepas itu di dalam Asiaweek keluaran 20 Oktober 1995 dengan tajuk “POWER PLAY: When will Anwar succeed Mahathir?”
5. Dalam tulisan Roger Mitton tersebut jelas beliau menyokong dan memuji Anwar selaku pemangku Perdana Menteri, padahal hanya 2 bulan saja Anwar memangku jawatan itu (Mat Saleh pun pandai jek Anwar).
6. Lynette Clemetson, wartawan dari majalah Newsweek Amerika juga turut memuji Anwar semasa beliau menjadi pemangku Perdana Menteri.
7. Dalam laporannya, Lynette Clemetson menulis yang Anwar kononnya berjaya membawa perubahan politik dalam tempoh 2 bulan memangku jawatan Perdana Menteri kerana memperkenalkan dasar antikorupsi serta mengamalkan cara syura dalam membuat keputusan; berbeza dengan Mahathir yang dikatakan sering membuat keputusan sendiri (Eleh..Mat Saleh pun boleh puji cara-cara Islam konon. Piirrahhh!)
Isnin, 3 November 2008
Education in Multi-Ethnical Societies; Mechanisms and Challenges. Case Study of Vision Schools in Malaysia
Undoubtedly, education is one of the most important key factors in process of achieving sustainability in every society. However, this notion faces many different challenges based on the society in which it wants to be implemented.
The role of education in multi-ethnical/cultural societies is vital to guaranty their sustainability of development. On the other hand, because of the diverse nature of multi-ethnical/cultural societies and communities, designing and applying an educational pattern which can answer the needs of each minority in regards to its unique identity and promote tolerance, respect and understanding among them is a challenging task.
This paper examines and analyzes some of the mechanisms (curriculum designing, activities, structures, etc), necessary to be addressed in the educational system of a multi-ethnical societies together with challenges these mechanisms face by refereeing to the case study of Vision Schools (Sekolah Wawasan) in multi-ethnical society of Malaysia.
As it has been officially described, Vision schools are primary schools with the concept of children learning together within an area without regard for race or religion to foster solidarity, integration and respect among the students by sharing of school facilities and implementation of other activities in school.
Full paper: Introduction:
If you plan for one year; plant rice, if you plan for 20 years; plant trees, but if you plan for 100 years; educate the people." -An Eastern proverb
Education has been always a key factor in existence and development of every society throughout the history of human being. As the matter of fact, this very important factor plays a central role in achieving a sustainable developed society. However, before entering to any further discussion, we have to define the meaning of a sustainable society and its relation with the concept of education.
Based on the classical definitions a sustainable society provides a high quality of life for all of its members without harming the integrity and efficiency of the natural systems and resources upon which all life depends. We have to pay attention that the limit of the human desires is nature. Human can design its dreams based on the borders of nature. Therefore, Sustainability can be defined as achieving a pleasing existence for everyone within the means of nature for now and in the future.
On the other hand, we have to be aware of this important fact that a sustainable society is not just about environment and nature. It covers a wider range of issues and phenomena. A sustainable society has to provide opportunities for each member of the community to reach his/her potentials. Some issues such as cultural diversity, providing adequate food, clothing, shelter, and a life of dignity for all people should be also addressed in a sustainable society.
Diversity is one of the most important issues that a sustainable society has to recognize and promote its existence as diversity gives birth to strength and flexibility of the human community. This cannot be achieved without a system of education designed to address these issues. There fore a system of education for a sustainable society has to make a balance between the human needs and natural systems.
As it has been mentioned, an appropriate system of education is a key to a sustainable society. In order to achieve such appropriate system of education, many elements should come into consideration such as; the geographical situation of the society, the population texture of the society, socio-economical background of the society, etc. however, the issue of designing and running a suitable system of education in societies with a mix ethnical backgrounds is very different from a homogenous society.
Malaysian System of Education:
This will lead us to the notion of a multiethnic society and the challenges that the education system of these societies faces to address the needs of every individual ethnic groups of that society. Based on official definitions, a multiethnic society is in contrast to mono-ethnic societies; integrate different ethnic groups irrespective of differences in culture, race, and history under a common social identity larger than one "nation" in the conventional sense.
The issue of ethnic diversity makes many things more complicated in a multiethnic society such as; the governing system, political system, economical system and of course education system. The backbone of all these complexity is how to address the needs and wills of each single ethnicity equally in the frame work of national identity and solidarity.
Malaysia is one of the examples of multiethnic (multiracial) countries around the world. In fact Malaysia represents the true meaning of a diverse society in many ways such as; race, language and religion. Population wise, Malaysian society is consisted of Malays 50.4%, Chinese 23.7%, Indigenous 11%, Indians 7.1% and others 7.8% (2004 est.). In term of language we witness a huge variety such as; Bahasa Malaysia (official), English, Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai and several indigenous languages which most widely spoken are Iban and Kadazan. The same goes to religion as Malaysian society practices many different religions like; Islam, Buddhism, Daoism, Hinduism, Christianity, Sikhism, Bahaism and also Shamanism in East Malaysia.
Looking at the statistics above shows us how difficult it can be to keep such diverse texture of society in harmony and provide a fair and equal system of education for it based on understanding and respect. In such a diverse society, the education system should be able of adopting a guideline to address the cultural and ethnical needs of each group and at the same time keep the society in the frame of national community.
The Malaysian education system is consisted of three different forms of schools; firstly the government-sponsored schools (National Schools), secondly, private schools and thirdly, home- schooling. As the matter of fact, the Malaysian system of education is extremely centralized especially when it comes to primary and secondary schools.
Based on the Malaysian constitution, the Malaysian Ministry of Education is responsible of providing the National Education Policy based on the National Ideology or as it called "Rukunegara" in Malay language. The principles of the National Ideology are; Believing in God, Loyalty to the King and the country, Upholding the constitution, Rule of law and Good behavior and morality.
The main aims of the Government Educational Policy are to 1) Equip students with the essential skills in a holistic and integrated manner, in order to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced; as well as functionally literate; 2) Inculcate and nurture national consciousness by promoting common ideals, values, aspirations and loyalties to foster national unity and national identity 3) Produce skilled manpower for economic and national development;
4) Instill desired moral values in students so that they can contribute effectively towards nation building.
The chart below demonstrates the general public education system of Malaysia. Curriculum wise, there are several different types of primary and secondary schools available in Malaysian education system. The main source of division in this case is their colloquial speech languages. All the schools use the national curriculum and Bahasa Malaysia as the medium of instruction along with their vernacular languages as their subject. For the Chinese or Tamil schools students prior to the promotion to Form 1, have to undergo a year in "Remove Form" to enable them to become accustomed to the national curriculum effectively. Based on the factors mentioned above, there are four types of governmental schools in Malaysia; 1) National Schools (Malay), 2) National Chinese Schools, 3) National Tamil Schools and 4) National Arabic Schools (The number of them is few).
Source: Malaysian Ministry of Education.
In January 2003, a mixed mode of instruction has been introduced so that from standard 1, science and mathematics are taught in English whilst other subjects are taught in Malay. Tamil and Chinese vernacular schools usually conduct classes in Mandarin and Tamil.
The issue of race and language has been always a challenge in front of the Malaysian education system since the establishment of Malaysia. There has been always argues on how to make policies and run this system with considering an equal opportunity and right for every member of diverse Malaysian society. The idea of vernacular schools has been always criticized by different sectors of the society as a barrier in front of sharing common experiences among different races. On the other hand, the supporters of this system claim that this will give students from different racial backgrounds to preserve their own culture within the frame of national unity.
In order to tackle these issues, the Malaysian government decided to introduce a new type of primary schools in 2004 under the name of Vision Schools (Sekolah Wawasan). Vision schools are primary schools with the concept of children learning together within an area without regard for race or religion. Under this concept, two or three primary schools of different streams are placed in the same area. Each school will have its own building which can be joined to the other schools by a link-way.
This system is at its testing period and there are just 5 of them throughout Malaysia. In this system, as it has mentioned before, 3 main types of schools (National, National Chinese and National Tamil) gather together at a same place under the name of Vision School Complex. Each school is separated from the other one and acts independently from its administrative system to its curriculum. Each school follows its national curriculum without interfering with the other one.
The most important factor which makes this type of school different from the ordinary schools is the notion of making students from different ethnic backgrounds enable of interacting with each other during the break times and also some other joint co-curriculum activities. This plan is being considered as an innovative option to address the main issues of preserving ethnic cultures and supporting inter-racial integration to sustain the national unity of the country.
Some of the main objectives of this system of schooling have been demonstrated by the Malaysian Ministry of Education as; fostering solidarity among the pupils of different races and backgrounds, instilling the spirit of integration among pupils of different streams, producing a generation that is tolerant and understanding so as to realize a united nation and encouraging maximum interaction among the pupils through the sharing of school facilities and implementation of other activities at school.
However, can this pattern of schooling system fulfill the principles of education in a diverse multiethnic society like Malaysia? What are the challenges, advantages and disadvantage of this plan? How successful this plan has been in achieving its goals and objectives? In order to answer such questions, we have to look at some basic and fundamental characters and principles of multiethnic education systems and evaluate the out put of Vision Schools based on them.
As the matter of fact, there are still arguments of how to define a multiethnic education system. Some experts believe that a multiethnic education system can be achieved by adding some special courses to the current curriculum to make it possible for each ethnic group to have a voice in the mainstream curriculum. And on the other hand, some other experts believe that the change should be happen in the classrooms and the climate of schools to make it possible for the students from different racial backgrounds to interact and integrate with each other in a more constructive way.
It is clear that the Malaysian Vision Schools follow the second school of thought in which the climate of classrooms and social interactions among students with different racial backgrounds is prier to the change of curriculum. As it has mentioned before, the Vision Schools follow the national curriculum which has been designed for them based on their language type and the interaction of the students happen outside of the official curriculum and classrooms.
At the same time we have to pay attention to this important fact that even National (Malay), Chinese National and Tamil National schools are not homogenous schools. There are a lot of students from different racial backgrounds in each school and calling these schools Chinese or Tamil does not mean that here is no other students rather than Chinese and Tamils in those schools. The naming has been made based on the majority of the students. This fact makes the issue of addressing the needs of each individual student in term of his/her identity even harder and more difficult.
Basic principles of Multiethnic Education System and their relation with Vision Schools:
However, there are some academically recognized principles in preparing Curriculum Guidelines for Multiethnic Education Systems which should be addressed in all multiethnic societies like Malaysia.
The first important principle in this issue is that the Ethnic and cultural diversity should be advocated in whole school environment. The sense of celebrating, accepting, understanding and respecting different cultures and ethnics should be well portrait not only in the subjects and the official curriculum of the school but the setting, atmosphere and the climate of the school as well. The unofficial curriculum of the school is as important as the official one in recognizing the ethnic diversity of the society and trying to address everyone equally.
To promote the understanding of ethnic diversity in whole school environment, the students should be able of accessing to first hand updated materials such as books, notes, audio-video resources, magazines, newspapers and internet which provide correct reliable information on different racial groups of their society, their beliefs, their traditions, etc. this can be achieved through at-school libraries or media centers.
This issue has been well understood in the concept of Vision Schools in Malaysia and all the 5 Vision Schools throughout Malaysia are equipped with libraries which provide such information for the students in order to increase their level of understanding about different ethnic groups at their school and society. These libraries contain an acceptable range of materials like literature, music, history, etc on different racial groups of the society.
The setting of the classes, gathering halls, corridors, cafeterias and offices of the schools should also reflect the notion of multi-ethnicity and multiculturalism. The decorations of the spaces at school play a very important role to make students from different ethnic backgrounds aware and familiar with each others' traditions and cultures.
In term of Vision Schools, although the administrative offices and classes of each school are separated, however, all the students share many common spaces such as the cafeteria, school yard and gathering halls. Based on the notion has been mentioned above, all these common areas are decorated by cultural signs of each different main cultures namely Malay, Chinese and Indian. In one of the Vision Schools which is located in eastern part of Malaysia, we can see more cultural signs of the indigenous cultures of that are in compare with mainstream cultures.
Co-curriculum activities occupy a very important position in term of advocating and making students aware of the cultural diversity of their society. Participation of students from different racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds should be promoted. Such activities can provide priceless opportunities not only for the development of self-esteem, but for students from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds to learn to work and play together, and to recognize that all individuals, whatever their ethnic identities, have worth and are capable of achieving.
In Vision Schools as the official curriculum of the school is the same as the national one, co-curriculum activities are the most important ways of encouraging students to mix together and work for a common goal. As a multicultural society, Malaysia celebrates many different cultural events of different races and cultures. These celebrations provide a unique opportunity for the students to experience the cultural diversity of their society in a first hand way.
Vision Schools celebrate some national cultural festivals such as Hari Raya (Islamic festival of ending the fasting month), Diwali and Thaipusam (Hindu festivals) Chinese New Year and Malaysian National Day with participation of all students from different racial background to make the sense of national unity and promote the understanding and respect for other cultures. The students participate in different activities such as drawing competitions, singing competitions, etc in order to celebrate these events together.
Some other activities such as visiting mosques, temples or churches are provided by the school officials to make students familiar with each others' cultural and traditional backgrounds.
The second important factor or principle in multiethnic system of education is the issue of school rules, regulations and policies. These rules and regulations should serve the process of cultural understanding among different racial groups of students with respecting to each individual cultural and religious belief.
In order to keep the school in order, we need some rules and regulations and implementing these rules and regulations can be challenging at some schools especially with a diverse racial and religious background of their students. This is a challenge most multiethnic schools face everyday. This issue will lead us to a very important fact which is the issue of equality for everyone in a multiethnic society and how to maintain this equality without disturbing the harmony and sustainability of the diverse racial texture of the school.
The issue of being fair in a multiethnic school is too different form a school with homogenous texture. In a multiethnic school we have to be aware that the definition of being fair is too different. We cannot use the same rule and logic to treat everyone with it. Something which looks fair to one special racial or religious group may seem unjust to the other. That is why the school administration in a multiethnic school has to adopt a policy to attend each ethnic group individually based on respect for their cultural identity and beliefs.
This concept can be translated into everyday rules and regulations of the school. For example in case of Malaysian Vision Schools, there are some certain concerns about the food which should be served at the school cafeterias. As each school has many Muslim students, the food in cafeteria should be Halal (prepared based on Islamic regulations) and at the same time to respect the Hindu students, beef should be eliminated from the menu. The same policy should be taken during the Muslims' fasting month of Ramadhan to ensure the equality for Muslim students.
On the other hand, any kind of discriminatory policies or regulations based on racial, religious or cultural stereotyping should be removed from the schools and classrooms. It has been cases that the academic achievements of the students have been tied to a stereotypical interpretation of their races and this matter has to be carefully monitored in multiethnic schools to prevent any kind of tension or discrimination.
The third important principle that has to be addressed is the ethnic texture of the academic and non-academic staffs of the school. It is a vital fact for a multiethnic school to have teachers, administrators and other staffs from different racial and cultural background. We have to keep it in mind that especially in primary schools; students view their teachers and school staffs as their patterns. At this stage, teachers and officials of schools have a great impact on shaping the personality and character of each student and this process should be carefully observed. A multiethnic texture of teachers and officials will help the student to practically experience a constructive interaction among different members of their society with different ethnic and cultural backgrounds.
As Ranjit K. Arora mentions in her book, a mono-ethnical schooling system within a multiethnic society can seriously decrease the level of interracial understanding, integration and sympathy among students.
So as to reduce such difficulties and problems at Vision Schools, the attempt has been made to choose the students and the administrators with different racial and cultural backgrounds in order to sustain the stability and secure the maximum interaction among different races at schools. There are teachers from different races who teach different courses at Vision Schools. This policy provides a trustful positive environment for the students to enjoy the interracial interactions. The role of teachers to navigate these interracial interactions to the proper channel is central on this issue.
The forth imperative principle that has to be paid attention in a multiethnic education system is the concept of making students aware of their unique racial identity in the frame work of respecting the ethnic and cultural pluralism of their society. The curriculum and co-curriculum activities of schools should be designed in the way to help students to discover their ethnic identity and feel positive and proud about it.
The school activities should be planed to enable each student from different ethnic backgrounds to learn more about his/her ethnic history in a positive way. Students should be celebrated and positively encouraged for who they are. Establishing a consciously positive ethnic identity can help the students to form a solid personality for themselves in future life. Students should feel safe and proud of expressing their ethnic identity and history. They have to be assured that in a pluralist society; every one would be treated equally regardless of his/her ethnicity.
At the same time, the multiethnic education system has to be aware that this sense of self identity has to be defined in the frame work of the pluralist society. Students should be taught that pluralism is against polarization. Students should be guaranteed that having a unique identity or ethnic background does not cause any kind of superiority or inferiority in their social life. At the same time, students should be informed about the realities of the situation. They have to know that there can be conflicts in their society over the ethnic issues; however, many of these conflicts can be avoided by understanding and respecting other cultures and ethnicities. They have to feel that the example of harmony at their school as a sample of their multiethnic society can be expanded to their society in larger scale.
In order to fulfill these concepts, Vision Schools teach the mother tongues of students from different ethnic backgrounds as a tool to make students aware of their roots and ethnic backgrounds. Language can be used as a very powerful mean to make students aware of their cultural identity. Apart from this, there are many co-curriculum activities provided by the Vision Schools for each ethnicity to celebrate their identity like art and cultural classes. At the same times, all the students from different ethnic background are obliged to learn Bahasa Malaysia the official and national language of the country in order to be able of communication with other ethnicities and also to comprehend the notion of national unity. During the curriculum materials and also co-curriculum activities, students are being informed of their ethnical and at the same time national heroes and heroines to make a balance of their self and national identities. Attitudes and values of living in a multiethnic society are always promoted by the curriculum materials and also co-curriculum activities at Vision Schools.
The fifth main element which has to be considered in a multiethnic education system is the subject of promoting personal cross-ethnical communication among students. This is one of the vital elements in order of having a sustainable multiethnic society in future. The students from different ethnic backgrounds should learn how to communicate with each other without any sort of religious or racial prejudices. Personal interactions between students should be promoted constantly by the education system.
These kinds of close interactions will bring a greater scale of understanding for students from different ethnic backgrounds and it will prevent any kind of cultural and racial stereotyping or misunderstandings in future. These kinds of cross-ethnic personal interaction should be endorsed from early ages at primary schools where the basis of social identity and personality of each student is under construction. Students should be well educated to realize that ethnicity is just one of the aspects of each human life and there are so many other aspects of human being which are common among all of us. Promoting the common aspects of social and personal life of human being can prevent many ethnical disputes and clashes in future.
In fact to achieve such goal, Vision Schools encourage students to mix up together during class time and especially the break time. Students from different ethnic backgrounds are encouraged to play together, eat together at school cafeteria, participate in group games and also in the process of decision making at school like student committee elections. These active participations will help students to have a better understanding of each others' culture, traditions, beliefs and way of thinking.
The above principles are some of the key factors which have to be considered in every multiethnic education system. In term of Malaysian Vision Schools, as it can be seen, there has been a tremendous effort to make a fair and efficient education pattern (from designing those schools to running them) to address the needs of each student group based on the main principles of the multiethnic education system.
However, as it has been mentioned before, Vision Schools are new to Malaysian education system (established in 2004) and therefore they have still a long way ahead of themselves to reach the ideal point. However, it seems there are some urgent deficiencies which have to be addressed sooner than others to maintain the sustainable multiethnic education system at these schools.
The first important deficiency in this case is the lack of cooperative teaching. Co-Teaching is a service delivery model in which two (or more) educators or other certified staff, contract to share instructional responsibility, for a single group of students, primarily in a single classroom workspace, for specific content (objectives), with mutual ownership, pooled resources, and joint accountability.
This style of teaching will give the students this opportunity to learn the subjects from different points of view (in this case different ethnic pints of view) and it will enable them to have a better comprehension of issues regarding to social and ethnical issues.
The second important deficiency which has to be considered seriously is the lack of special trainings for Vision School teachers. Although all the Vision School teachers are trained in Teacher Training Centers or universities; but all of these trainings were mostly focused on the academic parts of their career. The teachers of such schools should be specially trained on some vital issues such as intercultural communication skills, history of different racial groups of the society, cultural sensitivities, etc. A well trained teacher on these issues can be very helpful in maintaining the harmony among different ethnics at school. The trainings can be easily obtained in short term courses, programs or workshops by the Ministry of Education with the help from different ethnic societies or associations.
The third vital issue which should be taken more seriously by the Vision Schools is the social background of the teachers. It is extremely important to make a balance between the social background of the students and the teachers' in order to make them enable of understanding each other. It is proven that students from lower-income levels of the society are having more loyalty and sensitivity to religious and racial values and attitudes than those from upper classes of the society. These students may find the regulation and value system of their multiethnic school more difficult for them to adapt. It is caused because of their stronger belonging to their racial and religious values. Here, teachers who are familiar with such ideas and thinking can be a great aid to keep the school in harmony and manage the conflicts.
Apart from all the positive aspects and also the deficiencies of this plan, Vision Schools face some challenges from the public sectors and communities. For example in case of Tasik Permai Vision School Complex in Penang, Malaysia, the Chinese Schools refused to join the Vision School plan and they said that joining such complex will end up Chinese students to lose their culture and identity. They argue that having different races at one school can damage the sense of racial nationalism and in long term will make students to forget their roots and culture. That is why the Tasik Permai Vision School Complex is just consisted of one National School (Malay) and one National Tamil (Indian) School.
In another incident, there has been a number of complains from some of the parents of Muslim students at Vision Schools who were not agree with some of the cross-cultural activities at schools. They were arguing that some of these intercultural activities such as visiting Hindu or Chinese temples or introducing other religions and traditions to Muslim student can be considered as an act to convince Muslim students to convert to other religions.
However, a study about the social background of these parents showed that they were belonging to the rural parts of the society and this problem could have been solved easier if the school had some teachers or staffs from the surrounding rural areas. On the other hand, we should not under estimate the role of local communities and their constructive relations with the Vision Schools. Local communities with different ethnic background can play a key role in managing such conflicts between the public and Vision Schools.
The idea of Vision Schools has been introduced to the Malaysian Education System in order to increase and promote the sense of understanding and respect among the students from different racial and cultural backgrounds of the Malaysian diverse society. The long term goal of this plan is to educate students with a deeper degree of respect towards other members of the society who are racially and culturally different from them. The Vision Schools follow the National Curriculum of studying however, what makes them different from other schools is the multiethnic environment of them. This environment gives the students this unique opportunity to foster their sense of solidarity with other races through some special co-curriculum activities. As the matter of fact, there are always deficiencies and challenges ahead of them; however, most of them can be solved by time and also fair careful planning and evaluations.
1. Arora, Ranjit K. (2005) Race and Ethnicity in Education. Ashgate Publishing Limited. USA. ISBN: 0-7546-1441-7.
2. Blair, M. and Bourne, J. (1998) Making the Difference: Teaching and learning strategies in multi-ethnic schools. (Research Report 59). GB Dept. of Education and Employment, London.
3. Bourne, J. and McPake, J. (1991) Partnership Teaching: co-operative teaching strategies for language support in multilingual classrooms, London: HMSO.
4. Lynch, James. (1989) Multicultural Education in Global Society. The Falmer Press. USA. ISBN: 1-85000-557-5.
5. Schneider, Donald. (1994) Expectations of Excellence: Curriculum Standards for Social Studies National Council for the Social Studies Press.
* The references are mostly been used as a general guideline. Any direct quotation from them is properly mentioned within the article.
Hamoon Khelghat-Doost was born on December 1979 in Tehran, Iran. He has completed his Bachelor of Arts in English Language & Literature Studies (ELLS) and currently pursues his Master Degree in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) School of Social Sciences and works as a research assistant at USM Corporate & Division for Sustainable Development. He has completed few courses on Comparative Religion, Jewish Studies and Soviet Studies at Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.
He has been a member of the editorial board for Southeast Asian Studies Conflict Network (SEACSN) magazine and an archaeological research assistant for UNESCO and Laboratory of Geo-archaeology at Kazakh Ministry of Education and Science, Republic of Kazakhstan.
Sabtu, 1 November 2008
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